Week 2

Loving It All: Flourishing & Thriving - Being Well Being

Mentally, Emotionally, Physically, Environmentally & Socially. 

Healthy brains & bodies. Healthy relationships. Healthy homes & communities.

Hydration & Sleep

Drinking Water Helps Maintain the Balance of Body Fluids.

Your body uses water in all its cells, organs, and tissues to help regulate its temperature and maintain other bodily functions. Because your body loses water through breathing, sweating, and digestion, it's important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water.

 

Your body is composed of about 60% water. The functions of these bodily fluids include digestion, absorption, circulation, creation of saliva, transportation of nutrients, and maintenance of body temperature.

Five Reasons Water is So Important

Water boots energy

Water helps weight loss.

Water aids in digestion

Water delivers important nutrients to all of our cells, especially muscle cells, postponing muscle fatigue.

Water delivers important nutrients to all of our cells, especially muscle cells, postponing muscle fatigue.

Drinking water during or after a meal actually aids digestion. ... Water and other liquids help break down food so that your body can absorb the nutrients. Water also softens stool, which helps prevent constipation

Water detoxifies

Water hydrates skin

Hydration is an essential part of maintaining health, and it's the best conduit to flush toxins from your body. The more water you drink, the faster you will be rid of toxins.

H2O is the simplest and most accessible beauty saviour for dehydrated skin

Water aids in cognitive function

Proper hydration is key to staying in tip-top cognitive shape. ResearchTrusted Source indicates that not drinking enough water can negatively impact your focus, alertness, and short-term memory.

Water helps improve mood

Not getting enough water can also affect your mood. Dehydration may result in fatigue and confusion as well as anxiety.

It’s common to hear that water is essential for your health. But why?

This substance makes up a majority of your body weight and is involved in many important functions, including:

flushing out waste from your body

regulating body temperature

helping your brain function

 

Water consumption helps lubricate and cushion your joints, spinal cord, and tissues. This will help you enjoy physical activity and lessen discomfort caused by conditions like arthritis.

 

Hydration also affects your strength, power, and endurance.

 

You may be more susceptible to the effects of dehydration if you’re participating in endurance training or high-intensity sports such as basketball.

 

Negative effects of exercise in the heat without enough water can include serious medical conditions, like decreased blood pressure and hyperthermia. Extreme dehydration can cause seizures and even death.
 

Eating fiber isn’t the only way to prevent constipation. It’s also important to maintain your water intake so your bowel movements contain enough water.

 

If you don’t consume enough water, magnesium, and fiber, you may be more likely to experience constipation.

Drinking enough water can help prevent certain medical conditions. These include:

constipation
kidney stones
exercise-induced asthma
urinary tract infection
hypertension

 

Water also helps you absorb important vitamins, minerals, and nutrients from your food, which will increase your chances of staying healthy.
 

Your Body's Many Cries for Water 
by Fereydoon Batmanghelidj

This is an amazing book that talks about the key to a longer, healthier, and more vigorous life. Fereydoon shares with you his medical breakthrough that many people put their minds and bodies under intolerable and unnecessary stress and become sick simply because they do not drink enough water. Unintentional dehydration leads to illness and painful, degenerative diseases that can be prevented, treated, and cured by drinking plenty of water.


 

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is functional drinking water containing a lot of molecular hydrogen and a small number of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs, Table 1). ERW is known to scavenge ROS and protect DNA from oxidative damage

Kangen Water®

Kangen Water® is delicious water created from Enagic's innovative water technology. Not only do these devices filter your tap water, but they also produce ionized alkaline and acidic waters through electrolysis. These waters can be used for various purposes, including drinking, cooking, beauty, and cleaning.

Videos

18-minute Art of Wellbeing on Water | Kangen Demo (Short Version) | Antonina Bureacenco
 

In this 18-minute short presentation, Antonina shared her tips on the Art of Wellbeing. Why she believes Water is elemental, as well as Her choice of water.

Kangen Water Science Fully Explained
 

Kangen water science science technology new technology health technology healthy technology kangen water kangen kangen water details kangen water info kangen water information kangen water video kangen water presentation water ionizer

What Elite Scientists & Engineers Found About Kangen Water

Inventor and maker of medical devices ordered his team of elite engineers to find the truth if this Kangen Water Machine is really worth the certifications and the amount of money paid for it. They were surprised by what they found and did the unbelievable thing.

Doctors explaining the benefits of Kangen Water
 

Learn what doctors are saying about the important properties of Kangen Water. Email info@bestwateranywhere.com for more information.
 

Enagic Kangen Water® SD501 Demo
 

Enagic Kangen Water® SD501 Demo
3 Properties of Kangen
Water Anti-Oxidation
Micro-Clustering
Alkalinization

Testimonials

Bob Wright on Kangen Water
 

Dr Bob Wright -  Founder of the American Cancer Institute talking about Kangen Water - (2.5 mins)

Dr. Robert Wright - Kangen Water and Cancer treatment
 

Dr. Robert Wright - Kangen Water and Cancer Treatment (2 mins)

Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water

In Japan, research on functional water, especially on reduced water, is developing at a rapid pace. Reduced water such as electrochemically reduced water and natural reduced water can scavenge reactive oxygen species in cultured cells.

Digestion and Excretion

One particularly thirsty bodily process is digestion. To begin with, it takes 100ml of water to metabolize 100 calories. Producing gastric fluids takes more water, as does the production of mucus.

10 water-rich foods that will help you stay hydrated

Cucumbers are made up of 96% water – that’s the highest water content of any food. They’re also low in calories, and a source of vitamins and fibre.

Cucumber, 96% water

Tomatoes are made up of 95% water. Tomatoes are also a good source of Vitamin A, which is important for keeping your skin, eyes and immune system healthy.

Tomatoes, 95% water

Spinach, 93% water

Spinach is made up of 93% water. Not only is it good for hydration, but spinach is also a good source of iron.

Mushrooms are made up of 92% water. They’re also a good source of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), which is important for your skin and nervous system

Mushrooms, 92% water

Melons are also low in calories and sugar, and a source of Vitamin A, which helps to keep your eyes, skin and immune system in good working order.

Melon, 91% water

Broccoli, 90% water

Broccoli also contains lots of important nutrients, including Vitamin K, Vitamin A, iron,  calcium and folic acid.

Brussel sprouts are a great source of folic acid (folate), which is essential for your body to make red blood cells, and  important for the development of babies during pregnancy.

Brussel sprouts, 88% water

Oranges contain 86% water. Citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, clementines and satsumas are also good sources of Vitamin C.

Oranges, 86% water

Apples, 85% water

Apples are made up of 85% water, so it’s no wonder that an apple a day helps to keep the doctor away.

Blueberries, 84% water

Blueberries have become a popular health food in recent years. As well as being a source of fibre, vitamins and minerals, blueberries are also made up of 84% water

Other Fruits & Vegetables high in water include celery, bok choy, radish, zucchini, watercress, green bell peppers, and asparagus.

Top 10 High-Fiber Foods

 Some beans, like edamame (which is a steamed soy bean), are even a great fiber-filled snack. There are 9 grams of fiber in a half-cup serving of shelled edamame. All of these provide a great source of protein, too

Beans

Studies have shown that broccoli’s 5 grams of fiber per cup can positively support the bacteria in the gut, which may help your gut stay healthy and balanced.

Broccoli

Berries

Berries get a lot of attention for their antioxidants, but they’re full of fiber, too. Just a cup of fresh blueberries can give you almost 4 grams of fiber.

Avocados pretty much go with everything—toast, salads, entrees, eggs—and while they’re often recognized for their hefty dose of healthy fats, there are 10 grams of fiber in one cup of avocado

Avocados

Oats are among the healthiest grain foods on the planet. They’re very high in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. They contain a powerful soluble fiber called oat beta-glucan, which has major beneficial effects on blood sugar and cholesterol levels

Oats

Whole Grains

Good news for bread lovers: Real whole grains, found in 100% whole wheat bread, whole wheat pasta, brown rice, and oats, have fiber

There are about 4 grams of fiber in an apple, depending on its size, but this serving amount can help protect arteries and lower cholesterol.

Apples

Dried fruits like figs, prunes and dates can boost your fiber intake dramatically and are recommended for those struggling with constipation.

Dried Fruits

Potatoes

Sweet potatoes, red potatoes, purple potatoes and even the plain old white potato are all good sources of fiber; one small potato with skin can provide close to 3 grams of fiber.

 Nuts

Nuts aren’t just a great source of protein and healthy fats—sunflower seeds and almonds each have more than 3 grams of fiber in a serving

Foods and drinks that dehydrate you

Sodium is a big culprit. When you eat salty foods, your cells tell your brain that you're thirsty.

Sugary drinks also contribute. Much like salty foods, sugary drinks also tell your brain that you're thirsty.

Drinking alcohol may satiate some thirsts, but it definitely will not keep you hydrated. Alcohol is a diuretic, making you urinate more frequently.


We all enjoy a few nibbles of cured meats, especially around the holidays, but be sure to consume an equal amount of water alongside your meat. Not only is a high protein intake a cause of dehydration, but the salt in cured meats specifically can dry your body out quickly. 

 

Soy Sauce can cause mild dehydration.

Popcorn & fried foods also dehydrate.

 

Hydration and Mental Well-being

Christopher Peterson combined altruistic motivation with scientific and empirical rigor to contribute immeasurably to our fundamental understanding of positive psychology. His research put in place a foundation which allows us to stand on the shoulders of giants as we continue to strive towards self-betterment and the betterment of those around us.

Cognitive Function

Many studies have shown that hydration levels have a clear impact on cognitive (thinking) ability. In one, dehydrated students performed worse than properly hydrated students in four out of five tests. In another, dehydrated drivers were shown to be impaired to the level of sleep deprivation, or a 0.08 percent blood alcohol level

These and other studies support the scientific understanding that dehydration has the greatest effect on tasks requiring complex thought, prolonged attention, and coordination. As with physical performance, the worst of these symptoms begin at a dehydration level of 2 percent body weight loss.

One interesting note is that women seem to be affected more by dehydration’s effects.
There are many theories as to why this might be, with most centering on the hormonal differences between the sexes.

Mood and Mental Health

Dehydration doesn’t just upset your electrolyte balance: it can also disrupt the balance of serotonin and dopamine in the brain. These natural chemicals help control your mood, and when they are out of balance we can feel anxious, depressed, and exhausted.
 

Even mild dehydration of 1.5 percent has been shown to provoke mood changes like a lack of motivation (including the motivation to exercise) and increased levels of tension and stress.

As with cognitive issues, dehydration-related mood problems also appear to be worse among women.

Dr. Masaru Emoto and Water Consciousness

The Hidden Messages in Water

Dr. Masaru Emoto, the Japanese scientist who revolutionized the idea that our thoughts and intentions impact the physical realm, is one of the most important water researchers the world has known.  For over 20 years until he passed away in 2014, he studied the scientific evidence of how the molecular structure in water transforms when it is exposed to human words, thoughts, sounds and intentions.

The extraordinary life work of Dr. Emoto is documented in the New York Times Bestseller, The Hidden Messages in Water.  In his book, Dr. Emoto demonstrates how water exposed to loving, benevolent, and compassionate human intention results in aesthetically pleasing physical molecular formations in the water while water exposed to fearful and discordant human intentions results in disconnected, disfigured, and “unpleasant” physical molecular formations.  He did this through Magnetic Resonance Analysis technology and high-speed photographs.

Water, Consciousness & Intent: Dr. Masaru Emoto
 

Mr. Emoto has been visually documenting these molecular changes in water by means of his photographic techniques. He freezes droplets of water and then examines them under a dark field microscope that has photographic capabilities. 

Interview with Dr. Masaru Emoto about the magic of Water(rice experiment)
 

Until the groundbreaking work of a pioneer Japanese researcher whose astonishing discovery about water, documented photographically, changed most of what we didn't know and led to a new consciousness of Earth's most precious resource.

Does hydration affect sleep?

Dehydration can act as a powerful roadblock to your body's production of melatonin, making it hard to both fall asleep and stay asleep. This means that drinking an appropriate amount of water literally affects the quality of every hour in your day.

 

Drinking water before bed has a number of benefits, but drinking too close to bedtime can interrupt your sleep cycle and negatively impact heart health. You must drink enough water throughout the day to avoid dehydration and prevent excess water intake at night. One sign of dehydration is dark urine.
 

Sleep and Hydration

Some sleep effects are surprising. The risk of a painful, sleep-killing attack of gout (crystalized uric acid crystals in the joints, particularly the big toe) rises at night and the early morning. This is possibly due to dehydration, as it prevents the flushing out of uric acid in urine.

Water is also necessary for the body to detoxify itself as it does during the night. During sleep, cerebrospinal fluid helps clear out toxins in the brain. Dehydration has been shown to affect the amount and concentration of this cerebrospinal fluid, potentially causing some of the mental effects of sleep deprivation and possibly even raising the risk of neurological disorders.

Increased snoring due to dry sinuses

Nighttime leg cramps

Importance of Sleep

Getting a good amount of sleep is incredibly important for your health.


Sleep helps your body and brain function properly. A good night’s sleep can improve your learning, memory, decision-making and even your creativity.
 

Despite all these benefits, sleep quality and quantity are at an all-time low, and people increasingly suffer from poor sleep

What Happens To Your Body
When You Don't Get Enough Sleep?

Not getting enough sleep can lower your sex drive, weaken your immune system, cause thinking issues, and lead to weight gain.

When you don’t get enough sleep, you may also increase your risk of certain cancers, diabetes, and even car accidents.

If you continue to operate without enough sleep, you may see more long-term and serious health problems. Some of the most serious potential problems associated with chronic sleep deprivation are high blood pressure, diabetes, heart attack, heart failure or stroke. Other potential problems include obesity, depression and lower sex drive.

Here are the details of what happens to your body when you don’t log enough hours under the covers.

10 Effects Of Sleep Deprivation

 Losing sleep can impair your body’s ability to fight off illness. This makes it easier to get sick. Researchers even uncovered a reciprocal relationship between sleep and your immune system. You may lose additional sleep while your body fights off a bug if you get sick and haven’t had enough shut-eye.

You get sick

Both short sleep durations (less than 5 hours per night) and long sleep durations (9 or more hours per night) have been shown to have a negative impact on heart health, according to an analysis published in the European Heart Journal. In particular, your chances of developing coronary heart disease or having a stroke are greatly increased with less sleep.

Your heart suffers

Your cancer risk increases

Shortened sleep is associated with higher rates of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer, according to the AASM’s sleep statement. Overnight shift workers may take the brunt of this burden. The good news is that both men and women who slept 7 or more hours per night had the best mortality rates in the group.

In a study published by Experimental Brain Research, a group of 18 men were given a task to complete. The first task was completed following a full night’s sleep. The next task was completed after skipping a night of sleep. Brain functions including memory, decision-making, reasoning, and problem-solving worsened, along with reaction time and alertness.

You can’t think

Not only can missed sleep make you more forgetful, there’s also a growing body of research indicating that sleep has an impact on learning and memory. Researchers suggest that sleep is critical to the process of consolidating the things we learn in the brain. In other words, we need proper rest to lock in new information and commit it to memory.

You forget stuff

Your libido diminishes

In one studyTrusted Source, young men who lost sleep over a one-week period showed a decrease in testosterone levels. Sleeping 5 or fewer hours reduced sex hormone levels by as much as 10 to 15 percent. The men also reported that their overall mood and vigor declined with each consecutive night of interrupted rest.

You gain weight

A study examined the relationship between sleep and weight in 21,469 adults over the age of 20. The people who slept less than 5 hours each night over the course of the three-year study were more likely to gain weight and eventually become obese. Those who slept between 7 and 8 hours fared better on the scale.

Along with a bigger waistline, people who don’t get enough sleep (or who get too much) increase their risk of developing adult-onset diabetes. Researchers examined 10 separate studies focused on sleep and diabetes. Their findings uncovered that 7 to 8 hours of rest is the optimal range to avoid insulin issues that could lead to diabetes.

Your risk of diabetes increases

You’re accident prone

You’re three times more likely to be involved in a car accident if you get 6 or fewer hours of sleep each night, according to the National Sleep Foundation. The most vulnerable people are shift workers, commercial drivers, business travelers, and anyone else working long or odd hours. Think twice before getting behind the wheel if you’re not sleeping enough.

Your skin suffers

In one study, a group of people between the ages of 30 and 50 were evaluated based on their sleep habits and the condition of their skin. The results revealed that those with too little sleep had more fine lines, wrinkles, uneven skin color, and marked looseness of the skin. The poor sleepers were also more dissatisfied with their appearance than their well-rested counterparts.

Sleep Hygiene

Some people have no problem falling asleep. However, many others have severe difficulty falling and staying asleep through the night.

Here are some simple ways to fall asleep as fast as possible.

1. Lower the Room Temperature

Your body temperature changes as you fall asleep. Core temperature decreases, while the temperature of your hands and feet increases.

 

If your room is too warm, you might have a hard time falling asleep. Setting your thermostat to a cool temperature between 60–75°F (15–23°C) could help.

Individual preferences will vary, so find the temperature that works best for you.

2. Warm Bath or Shower

Warm bath of around 104 and 109 degrees Fahrenheit, for as little as 10 minutes can significantly improve overall sleep efficiency. In other words, a warm bath led to more time spent in actual sleep rather than turning or tossing and trying to fall asleep, compared to usual sleep without taking a bath. When scheduled one to two hours before bedtime, a warm bath can also hasten the speed of falling asleep by about 36%.

3. Use the "4-7-8" Breathing Method

The “4-7-8” method is a simple but powerful breathing method that promotes calmness and relaxation. It might also help you unwind before bed.

It consists of a breathing pattern that relaxes the nervous system. It can be practiced anytime you feel anxious or stressed.

Here are the steps:

1. First, place the tip of your tongue behind your upper front teeth.
2. Exhale completely through your mouth and make a whoosh sound.
3. Close your mouth and inhale through your nose while mentally counting to four.

4. Hold your breath and mentally count to seven.
Open your mouth and exhale completely, making a whoosh sound and mentally counting to eight.

5. Repeat this cycle at least three more times.
This technique can relax you and help you fall asleep quickly.

4. Get on a Schedule

Many people find that setting a sleep schedule helps them fall asleep easier. Your body has its own regulatory system called the circadian rhythm. This internal clock cues your body to feel alert during the day but sleepy at night.

Waking up and going to bed at the same times each day can help your internal clock keep a regular schedule. Once your body adjusts to this schedule, it will be easier to fall asleep and wake up around the same time every day.

It is also important to get seven to nine hours of sleep each night. This has been shown to be the optimal sleep duration for adults.

Lastly, give yourself 30 minutes to an hour to wind down in the evening before getting in bed. This allows your body and mind to relax and prepare for sleep

5. Practice Yoga, Meditation and Mindfulness

When people are stressed, they tend to have difficulty falling asleep.

Yoga, meditation and mindfulness are tools to calm the mind and relax the body. Moreover, they have been shown to improve sleep.

Yoga encourages the practice of breathing patterns and body movements that release stress and tension accumulated in your body

Meditation can enhance melatonin levels and assist the brain in achieving a specific state where sleep is easily achieved.

Lastly, mindfulness may help you maintain focus on the present and worry less while falling asleep 

Practicing one or all of these techniques can help you get a good night's rest and wake up re-energized.

Listen to this track while doing your meditation.

6. Do Not Look at Your Clock

It is normal to wake up in the middle of the night. However, the inability to fall back asleep can ruin a good night’s rest; do not look at your clock. 

7. Watch What and When You Eat

It seems that the food you eat before bed may affect your sleep. For example, research has shown that high-carb meals may be detrimental to a good night's rest.

A review of studies concluded that even though a high-carb diet can get you to fall asleep faster, it will not be restful sleep. Instead, high-fat meals could promote a deeper and more restful sleep. 

8. Listen to Relaxing Music

Music can significantly improve quality of sleep. It can even be used to improve chronic sleep disorders like insomnia.

A study of 24 young adults demonstrated that sedative music promoted deeper sleep.

Buddhist music is a kind of music created from different Buddhist chants and used for meditation. Listening to it may be a great tool for better sleep 

9. Exercise During The Day

Physical activity is often considered beneficial to healthy sleep.

Exercise can increase the duration and quality of sleep by boosting the production of serotonin in the brain and decreasing levels of cortisol, the stress hormone.

However, it is important to maintain a moderate-intensity exercise routine and not overdo it. Excessive training has been linked to poor sleep.

10. Turn Off All Electronics

Using electronic devices late at night is terrible for sleep.

Watching TV, playing video games, using a mobile phone and social networking can make it significantly harder for you to fall and stay asleep.

11. Practice Journaling

Some people have difficulty falling asleep because their thoughts keep running in circles. Research has shown that this can produce anxiety and stress, which can generate negative emotions and disturb sleep. 
 

Research has shown that journaling and focusing on positive thoughts can calm the mind and help you sleep better.

Writing down the positive events that happened during the day can create a state of gratitude and happiness, downgrade stressful events and promote more relaxation at bedtime.

12. Visualize Things That Make You Happy

Instead of lying in bed worrying and thinking about stressful things, visualize a place that makes you feel happy and calm.

Other Things That Can Help You Sleep

Melatonin Supplements

Melatonin is a hormone found naturally in the body. Melatonin used as medicine is usually made synthetically in a laboratory. It is most commonly available in pill form, but melatonin is also available in forms that can be placed in the cheek or under the tongue. This allows the melatonin to be absorbed directly into the body.

Some people take melatonin by mouth to adjust the body's internal clock. Melatonin is most commonly used for insomnia and improving sleep in different conditions. For example, it is used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping people establish a day and night cycle.

Valerian Root

Valeriana officinalis, commonly known as valerian, is an herb native to Asia and Europe. It is now also grown in the US, China and other countries..

 

Valerian root is often referred to as "nature's Valium." In fact, this herb has been used since ancient times to promote tranquility and improve sleep.

Valerenic acid has been found to inhibit the breakdown of GABA in the brain, resulting in feelings of calmness and tranquility. This is the same way anti-anxiety medications like Valium and Xanax work

Passion Flower Tea

StudiesTrusted Source suggest that passionflower works by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a naturally-occurring amino acid that reduces activity in the central nervous system. This results in relaxation, enhanced mood, better sleep, and pain relief. Passionflower has also been foundTrusted Source to be a successful treatment for the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with less side effects compared to benzodiazepines.

Glycine AminoAcid

Glycine is an amino acid that your body uses to create proteins, which it needs for the growth and maintenance of tissue and for making important substances, such as hormones and enzymes.

This amino acid has a calming effect on your brain and could help you fall and stay asleep by lowering your core body temperature.

Research in people with sleep issues has shown that taking 3 grams of glycine before bed decreases how long it takes to fall asleep, enhances sleep quality, lessens daytime sleepiness and improves cognitio

Magnesium

Magnesium increases GABA, which encourages relaxation as well as sleep. Low GABA levels in the body can make it difficult to relax. Magnesium also plays a key role in regulating the body’s stress-response system. Magnesium deficiency is associated with heightened stress and anxiety. 

Lavender - Potent Therapeutic Oil

Lavender is grown in northern Africa and the Mediterranean mountains, often for extraction of its essential oils.

Lavender is a soothing scent that’s long been associated with relaxation and sleep, and used as a natural remedy for anxiety. Lavender is probably the most rigorously studied essential oil. A robust body of research shows lavender has anxiety reducing—or anxiolytic—effects, as well as beneficial effects on depression.

 

What are the benefits of the ocean?

The air we breath: The ocean produces over half of the world's oxygen and absorbs 50 times more carbon dioxide than our atmosphere. Climate regulation: Covering 70 percent of the Earth's surface, the ocean transport heat from the equator to the poles, regulating our climate and weather patterns.

Why is sea air good for you?

Swimming in the sea gives you a full-body workout, improves circulation and increases your immune system function. The negative ions in sea air accelerate your ability to absorb oxygen and balance your serotonin levels, a body chemical linked with mood and stress.

Why does sea air make you sleepy?

Getting a lungful at the beach will help you sleep better. This is because sea air is full of negative hydrogen ions, charged particles abundant in sea spray and concentrated in fresh air, which improves our ability to absorb oxygen by neutralizing damaging free radicals. (positive ions)

Why is seawater important in our daily life?

Life not only started in the ocean; the ocean also maintains life on earth. It regulates earth's temperature, provides us with oxygen, food, drinking water, energy, raw materials medication and even recreation and culture.

What is the pH of the seawater?

The pH of seawater has remained steady for millions of years. Before the industrial era began, the average pH at the ocean surface was about 8.2 (slightly basic; 7.0 is neutral)/ Today it is about 8.1

What are the two major solutes in seawater?

Differences like these are due to the varying residence times of seawater solutes; sodium and chloride have very long residence times, while calcium (vital for carbonate formation) tends to precipitate much more quickly. The most abundant dissolved ions in seawater are sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, and calcium,

Benefits of The Ocean

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